Abstract This platform paper introduces a methodology for simulating an autonomous vehicle on open public roads. The paper outlines the technology and protocol needed for running these simulations, and describes an instance where the Real Road Autonomous Driving Simulator (RRADS) was used to evaluate 3 prototypes in a between-participant study design. 35 participants were interviewed at length before and after entering the RRADS.
Although our study did not use overt deception---the consent form clearly states that a licensed driver is operating the vehicle---the protocol was designed to support suspension of disbelief. Several participants strongly believed that they were interacting with a fully autonomous vehicle.
The RRADS platform provides a lens onto the attitudes and concerns that people in real-world autonomous vehicles might have, and also points to ways that a protocol deliberately using misdirection can gain ecologically valid reactions from study participants.
Real Road Autonomous Driving Simulator
RRADS in action: press play!
Testing the role of distraction in perceiving vehicular haptic ques.
A proper introduction to the RRADS vehicle is a critical step in any protocol.
Study Abstract We built and evaluated three haptic pre-cuing systems for use in in autonomous vehicles. The study evaluated three physical prototypes in terms of their comfort, communication efficacy, and influence on trust. The devices were designed to alert participants to the autonomous vehicles’ starts, stops, and turns. During the study participants were asked to watch a short movie while in the vehicle to distract them from on-road visual cues such as stop signs and turning lanes. We tested the devices with 35 people in a between-participant study design.
Prototypes 1. Pneumatic base in the foot well of the car that tilts in the direction that the car is about to move in.
2. Vibration array embedded into the passenger’s seat back exhibiting various vibration patterns corresponding with vehicle movement.
3. Pneumatic device that displaces the participant’s shoulders to indicate if the vehicle would turn right or left.
Key Findings Trust was high through all conditions. In fact we did not find any significant statistical differences between the conditions despite the fact that several of the pre-cuing systems (especially the floor boards) were very effective pre-cuing devices.
These results indicate that an autonomous vehicle’s perceived personality and driving style may be incredibly strong and salient factors in a user’s trust in a vehicle, and overwhelm the effects of any one particular haptic device.
Seat Back Vibration Array
Coin motors arranged in a grid are actuated in different patterns to alert a passenger to starts, stops and turns.
Pneumatic Floor Board in Action
Floor well tilts in the direction of the impending action. Press play!
Pneumatic Floor Board Prototype
Four pneumatic pads attached to a board are coordinated with the vehicle's movements. Each pad can be actuated individually to tilt the floorboard in different directions.
Pneumatic Shoulder Prototype In Action
Pad inflates to communicate direction of left turn. Press Play!
Pneumatic Shoulder Pads
Pneumatic pads inflate to indicate direction of the vehicle. To indicate a deceleration, we inflated both pads.
How far in advance did participants guess?
Note the differences in control times for each vehicle. Participants guessed when the Jeep would take action well before they guessed when the Infiniti would take action.
Needfinding: Scrapworks Feed Thesis
Thesis Brief : Design and build something - anything - in a team using the human-centered design process. You have a year. Go.
Thesis Partner: Hannah Mensing
Defining The Problem Hannah and I teamed up to solve a problem that had significance at both a global and personal scale. After some exploratory research in how people felt about recycling, we realized that there is a lot of guilt and shame surrounding the current models of waste disposal. On a global scale, landfill waste continues to accrue at an alarming rate. Since 1960, America has tripled the amount of waste we generate, despite legislative attempts to divert waste from landfill.
But what exactly is entering our landfills? Food is the #1 product.
Solution Our solution - Scrapworks Feed - focused on one major producer of food waste - industrial kitchen operations. We created a new incentive structure that inspired stressed-out hourly workers to change how they interacted with leftovers. Focusing on compost didn't connect with our users, so we designed a method to convert food waste into animal feed. By reframing the issue, we improved kitchen morale and compliance.
Scrapworks Feed Analytics reduce spoilage 50-75%. We dehydrate, package and sell the the remaining excess food into a shelf-stable and sustainable livestock feed.
Scrapworks Feed Pitch Video
Scrapworks Feed - Early Insights Video
Insights and Early Development of Scrapworks Feed Press Play!
What 441lbs of Food Waste Looks Like
We collected and categorized food waste throughout the dining hall system to better understand why, where and when food waste occurred.
Learning from the Kitchens and Farms
Scrapworks Feed requires a deep understanding of the needs, and limitations, of industrial kitchens as well as farmers.
The 3 Worlds Scrapworks Feed Touches
For Scrapworks Feed to work, we needed to understand what made the three spaces we worked in 'tick'. We conducted interviews with large and small farmers, commercial kitchen operations, and municipal waste management companies.
Brief: How might we foster engagement beyond the social enterprise conference? Teammate: Joe Kendall
Key Findings 1. Social Enterprise is driven by ego 2. This community is highly empathetic, but embarrassed about failure
Solution Little Obit, a news aggregate that that prints out company obituaries, launch announcements, and personal testimonials
Hypothesis Little Obit exploits the two driving forces within social enterprise: empathy and ego. It links the company closings to the people they effect, and helps a nascent community to learn from each others mistakes.
75% of social enterprises close, but the people who worked in them remain. You need your community to survive the disappointments. Sharing grief has proven psychological benefits, and brings a community closer together.
Little Obit Video
Concept video for the Little Obit Project. Press Play!
Description Not long ago I came across some old paper dolls in a drawer. The clothing was fitted with tabs, and the wardrobe included patterned bloomers and lacy socks. I began to wonder what kind of furniture a paper doll would have. If you were to visit her, what chair would she offer you?
I decided to build it for myself. The structure folds up out of three flat pieces of laser-cut steel and is fitted with tabs just like a paper doll’s clothing. The thin metal mimics delicate paper. Intricate lace patterns and fine perforations lines inspired by stitched clothing complete the illusion.
The chair may look fragile, but it is strong, comfortable and stable. Sitting in it you feel dainty as a paper doll.
Delicate and Strong
Although it looks delicate, the Paper Doll Chair can comfortably handle the weight of a full-grown man
Laser-Cutting Pattern for Chair
The metal can be cut and shipped as a flat-pack, and assembled on-site
Lace cutouts reduce the weight of the chair while adding delicacy
Top: Chair seat during folding process Bottom: Assembled Chair
The aesthetics of paper dolls and lace informed the structural design, as well as the decorative attributes of the chair
Over 100 different patterns were folded and discarded in order to arrive at the final template
Description Inspired by the silhouettes of bear cubs, these nesting benches combine in a variety of playful configurations. Their sturdy plywood construction is strong enough for an adult to sit on and light enough for a child to move.
These simple modular elements combine to create fun, interactive spaces for children to explore.
In the future, these benches will include removable leather, felt, or cotton covers that snap to the exterior of the plywood shell
Children playing with Bear Benches
1/6 Scale Chipboard Models
Bear Benches can be configured to form patterns and play spaces
Product: Interactive Stories
Product Name Pepfly Bunnies
Product Details Interactive stories developed in Flash and HTML-5
Description In 2009 I joined a team of engineers and psychologists designing interactive applications that promoted emotional resiliency. The Pepfly Bunnies are the continuation of a project that I invented while working there.
I created the Pepfly Bunny character to address the stigma associated with mental disorders. The interactive storybooks are designed to respond to a variety of scenarios, from feelings of exclusion to a fear of asking for help.
In the future, I would like to expand the product to include a toy that a child could actually speak to and hug.
The bunny would gather information about the child’s emotional state through the interactive stories, as well as from biometric information such as the child’s temperature and tone of voice. A kind of empathetic conversation between bunny and child could then take place.
At the simplest level, the bunny could mimic the child’s rate of speech by the pulse of glowing gears. More complex concepts include the bunny responding to the child’s mood through movement, or even sound.
"We All Need A Little Work"
An interactive story dealing with the stigma felt by mental health patients.
"Other Bunnies Matter"
An interactive story about learning to accept help from others.